Grammar: Groups & phrases: Verb group: Structure of the verb group
Transitive and intransitive phrasal verbs
Some phrasal verbs are 'transitive' , which means that there are two Participants (P1 and P2) involved:
must hand in your
Some phrasal verbs are 'intransitive' , which means that there is only Participant (P1) involved:
Why are they
all lying down?
The distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs often coincides with a distinction between adverb and preposition:
up unexpectedly. ['arrived']
heat on his competitors.
A phrasal verb comprising verb + adverb generally has only one Participant:
Ricky turned up unexpectedly.
On the other hand, a phrasal verb comprising verb + preposition generally has two Participants:
Bozo turned up the heat on his competitors.
Note that there are exceptions to both of these generalisations.
Here are some examples of transitive phrasal verbs, shown with the pronoun following the first word:
Transitive phrasal verbs
|bring it back||call them up||cross it off||dig it up|
|dream it up||eat it up||fill it up||give it away|
|give it up||hand it in||hand it over||hold it down|
|hold it up||knock it over||leave it out||lift it up|
|mess it up||mix it up||pass it around||pin it up|
|pay it back||put it away||read it out||switch it off|
|switch it on||throw it away||throw it out||tidy it away|
|tidy it up||try it on||try it out||turn it off|
|turn it on||wash it out||wipe it off||wipe it out|
Note that when the second Participant is a small noun group, we usually have the option of placing it after the phrasal verb or after the first word of the phrasal verb:
You must bring
must bring some sleep back.
However, if the second Participant is expressed by a pronoun, the pronoun almost always comes between the verb and the particle:
You must bring it back.
Here are some examples of intransitive phrasal verbs:
Intransitive phrasal verbs
|come away||come back||come in||come out|
|end up||fall apart||fall over||fool around|
|get up||go ahead||go away||go back|
|go on||go out||grow up||hold on|
|join in||lie down||look back||meet up|
|move over||own up||roll over||run around|
|run away||run out||sit down||stand up|
|walk out||watch out|
|noun group||noun phrase|
Note that the term Participant is written with a capital to remind us that it is a functional term.
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